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These two formats referred together as PIF-POF are derived from a common binary encoding substrate that is described in this appendix. For the sake of clarity, this documentation treats all octets as unsigned 8-bit integer values in the range 0x00 to 0xFF decimal 0 to Byte-ordering is explicitly not a concern 0x67 binary options in PIF-POF a given octet value that is represented by an unsigned 0x67 binary options integer value is 0x67 binary options written and read as the same unsigned 8-bit integer value.
A PIF stream contains exactly one Invocation. An Invocation consists of an initial POF stream that contains an Integer Value for the remaining length of the Invocation, immediately followed by a POF 0x67 binary options that contains an Integer Value that is the conversation 0x67 binary options, immediately followed by a POF stream that contains a User Type value that is the message object. The remaining length indicates the total number of octets used to encode the conversation identifier and the message object; the remaining length is provided so that a process receiving an Invocation is able to determine 0x67 binary options the Invocation has been fully received.
The message object is defined by the particular 0x67 binary options conversational protocol. A POF stream contains exactly one Value.
The Value contains a Type Identifier, and if the Type Identifier does not imply a value, then it is immediately trailed by a data structure whose format is defined by the Type Identifier. The stream format relies extensively on the ability to encode integer values in a compact form. Coherence 0x67 binary options to this integer binary format as a packed integer. This format uses an initial octet and one or more trailing octets as necessary; it is a variable-length 0x67 binary options. Example F-1 illustrates writing a bit integer value to an octet stream as supported in Coherence.
Example F-2 illustrates 0x67 binary options a bit integer value from an octet stream as supported in Coherence. Integer values used within this documentation without an explicit Type Identifier are assumed to be bit signed integer values that have a decimal range of -2 31 to 2 31 A Type Identifier is encoded in the binary stream as an Integer Value. Type Identifiers greater than or equal to zero are user Type Identifiers. Type Identifiers less than zero are predefined "intrinsic" type identifiers.
Table F-4 Predefined Type Identifiers. Type Identifiers less than or equal to are a combination of a type and a value. This form is used to reduce space for these commonly used values. This section describes the binary formats for the predefined "intrinsic" type identifiers that are supported with PIF-POF. Four signed integer types are supported: If a type identifier for one of the integer types is encountered in the stream, it is immediately followed by an Integer Value. The four signed integer types vary only by the length that is required to support the largest value of the type using the common "twos complement" binary format.
The Type Identifier, one of int16int32int64or int is followed by an Integer Value in the stream. If the Integer Value is outside of the range supported by the type -2 15 to 2 15 -1 for int16-2 31 to 2 31 -1, for int32-2 63 to 2 63 0x67 binary options for int64or -2 to 2 -1 for intthen the result is undefined and may be bitwise truncation or an exception.
Additionally, there are a number of Type Identifiers that combine the int designation with a value into 0x67 binary options single byte for purpose of compactness.
As a result, these Type Identifiers are not followed by an Integer Value in the stream, since the value is included in the Type Identifier. The Java type equivalents are short int160x67 binary options int32long int64 and BigInteger int Since BigInteger is capable of representing much larger values, it is not possible to encode all BigInteger values in the int form; values out of the int range are basically unsupported, and would result in an exception or would use a different encoding, such as a string encoding.
To enable the efficient representation of numeric data types, an 0x67 binary options type is coerced into any of the following types by a stream recipient:. In other words, if the recipient reads any of the above types from the stream and it encounters an encoded integer value, it automatically converts that value into the expected type. This capability allows a set of common that is, small-magnitude octet, character, integer, decimal and floating-point values to be encoded using the single-octet integer form Type Identifiers in 0x67 binary options range to For purposes of unsigned types, the integer value -1 is translated to 0xFF for the octet type, and to 0xFFFF for the char type.
In 0x67 binary options case of the char type, this does unfortunately seem to imply a UTF platform encoding; however, it does not violate any of the explicit requirements of the stream format. There are three floating-point decimal types supported: If a type identifier for one of the decimal types is encountered in the stream, it is immediately followed by two packed integer values. The first integer value is the unscaled value, and the second is the scale. These values are equivalent to the parameters to the constructor of Java's BigDecimal class: BigDecimal BigInteger unscaledVal, int scale.
Java does not provide a standard that is, portable decimal type; rather, it has the awkward BigDecimal implementation that was intended originally for internal use in Java's cryptographic infrastructure. In Java, the decimal values for positive and negative infinity, as well as not-a-number NaNare not supported. Three base-2 floating point types are supported: In addition to the coercion of integer values into decimal values as described in "Coercion of Integer Types"the constants in Table F-9 are used to indicate special values supported by IEEE Other special values defined by IEEE are encoded using the full bit, bit or bit format, and may not be supported on all platforms.
Specifically, by not providing any means to differentiate among them, Java only supports one NaN value. If the type identifier for Boolean occurs in 0x67 binary options stream, it is followed by an integer value, which represents the Boolean value false for the integer value of zero, or true for all other integer values.
While it is possible to encode Boolean values as described in "Coercion of Integer Types"the only values for the Boolean type are true and false. As such, the only expected binary formats for Boolean values are the predefined and compact forms described in Table F If 0x67 binary options type identifier for Octet occurs in the stream, it is followed by the octet value itself, which is by definition in the range 0x67 binary options to 0x00 to 0xFF. As described in "Coercion of Integer Types"the compact form of integer values can be used for Octet values, with the integer value -1 being translated as 0xFF.
If the 0x67 binary options identifier for Octet String occurs in the stream, it is followed by an Integer Value for the length n of the string, and then n octet values.
If the type identifier for Char occurs in the stream, it is followed by a UTF-8 encoded character. As described in the section on "Coercion of Integer Types"the compact form of integer values may be used for Char values, with the integer value -1 being translated as 0xFFFF. If the type identifier for Char String occurs in the stream, it is followed by an Integer Value for the length n of the UTF-8 0x67 binary options string in octetsand then n octet values composing the UTF-8 encoding described above.
Note that the format length-encodes the octet length, not the character length. A Char String of zero length is encoded using the string: Table F illustrates the Char String formats. 0x67 binary options values are passed using ISO semantics. If the type identifier for Date occurs in the stream, it is followed by three Integer Values for the year, month and day, in the ranges as defined 0x67 binary options ISO If the type identifier for Year-Month Interval occurs in the stream, it is followed by two Integer Values for the number of years and the number of months in the interval.
Time values are passed using ISO semantics. If the type identifier for Time occurs in the stream, it is followed by five Integer Values, which may be followed by two more Integer Values. The first four Integer Values are the hour, minute, second and fractional second values. Fractional seconds are encoded in one of three ways:. The encoding for variable fractional and time zone does add complexity to the parsing of a Time Value, but provide for much more complete support of the ISO standard and the variability in the precision of clocks, while achieving a high degree of binary compactness.
While time values tend to have no fractional encoding or millisecond encoding, the trend over time is toward higher time 0x67 binary options.
If the type identifier for Time Interval occurs in the stream, it is followed by four Integer Values for the number of hours, minutes, seconds and nanoseconds in the interval. Date-Time values are passed using ISO semantics. If the type identifier for Date-Time occurs in the stream, it is followed by eight or ten Integer Values, which correspond to the Integer Values that compose the Date and Time 0x67 binary options.
Date Value can be coerced into a Date-Time Value. Time Value can be coerced into a Date-Time Value. If the type identifier for Day-Time Interval occurs in the stream, it is followed by five Integer Values 0x67 binary options the number of days, hours, minutes, seconds 0x67 binary options nanoseconds 0x67 binary options the interval. A 0x67 binary options of values, such as a bag, a set, 0x67 binary options a list, are encoded in a POF stream using the Collection type.
Immediately following the Type Identifier, the stream contains the Collection Size, an Integer Value indicating the number of values in the Collection, which is greater than or equal to zero.
Following the Collection Size, is the first value in the Collection if anywhich is itself encoded as a Value. The values in the Collection are contiguous, and there is exactly n values in the stream, where n 0x67 binary options equal to the Collection Size. If all the values in the Collection have the same type, then the Uniform Collection format is used. Immediately following the Type Identifier uniform-collectionthe uniform type of the values in the collection is written to the stream, followed by the Collection Size n as an Integer Value, followed by n values without their Type Identifiers.
Note that values in a Uniform Collection cannot be assigned an identity, and that as a side-effect of the 0x67 binary options type encoding an empty Uniform Collection has an explicit content type. Table F illustrates examples of Collection and Uniform Collection formats for several values. An indexed array 0x67 binary options values is encoded in a POF stream using the Array type.
Immediately following the Type Identifier, the stream contains the Array Size, an Integer Value indicating the number of elements in the Array, which must be greater than or equal to zero. Following the Array Size is the value of the first element of the Array the zero indexassuming that there is at 0x67 binary options one element in the array, which is itself encoded using as a Value.
The values of the elements of the Array are contiguous, 0x67 binary options there must be exactly n values in the stream, where n is equal to the Array Size. If all the values of the elements of the Array have the same type, then the Uniform Array format is used. Immediately following the Type Identifier uniform-arraythe uniform type of the values of the elements of the Array is written to the stream, followed by the Array Size n as an Integer Value, followed by n values without their Type Identifiers.
Note that values in a Uniform Array cannot 0x67 binary options assigned an identity, and that as a side-effect of the explicit type encoding an empty Uniform Array has an explicit array element type. Table F illustrates examples of Array and Uniform Array formats for several values. For arrays whose element values are sparse, the Sparse Array format allows indexes to be explicitly encoded, implying that any missing indexes have a default value. The default value is false for the Boolean type, zero for all numeric, octet and char types, and null for all reference types.
If all the values of the elements of the Sparse Array have the same type, then the Uniform Sparse Array format is used. Note that values in a Uniform Sparse Array cannot be assigned an identity, and that as a side-effect of the explicit type encoding an empty Uniform Sparse Array has an explicit array element type. There are three forms of the Key-Value Map binary encoding:.
The uniform-keys-map encoding is a sequence of keys of a uniform type and their corresponding values. The uniform-map encoding 0x67 binary options a sequence of keys of a uniform type and their corresponding values of a uniform type. If the type identifier for Identity occurs in the stream, it is followed by an Integer Value, which is the Identity. Following the Identity is the value that is being identified, which is itself encoded as a Value.
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