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This flag can, however, have an effect on the response calculations as detailed in the " NTLM2 Session Response " section. As an example, consider a message specifying: This would be physically laid out as " 0x " since it is represented in little-endian byte order. The Type 1 Message Let's jump in and take a look at the Type 1 message: Its primary purpose is to establish the "ground rules" for authentication by indicating supported options via the flags.
Optionally, it can also provide the server with the client's workstation name and the domain in which the client workstation has membership; this information is used by the server to determine whether the client is eligible for local authentication. Typically, the Type 1 message contains flags from the following set: Negotiate Unicode 0x The client sets this flag to indicate that it supports Unicode strings.
Request Target 0x This requests that the server send the authentication target with the Type 2 reply. Negotiate Domain Supplied 0x When set, the client will send with the message the name of the domain in which the workstation has membership. Negotiate Workstation Supplied 0x Indicates that the client is sending its workstation name with the message. Negotiate Always Sign 0x Indicates that communication between the client and server after authentication should carry a "dummy" signature.
Negotiate 0x Indicates that this client supports strong bit encryption. Negotiate 56 0x Indicates that this client supports medium bit encryption. The supplied domain is a security buffer containing the domain in which the client workstation has membership. This is always in OEM format, even if Unicode is supported by the client. The supplied workstation is a security buffer containing the client workstation's name.
This, too, is in OEM rather than Unicode. The OS Version structure was introduced in recent Windows updates; it identifies the host's operating system build level, and is formatted as follows: There are three versions of the Type 1 message that have been observed in the wild: In this case the message ends after the flags field, and is a fixed-length byte structure.
This form is typically seen in older Win9x-based systems, and is roughly documented in the Open Group's ActiveX reference documentation Section The data block begins immediately after the security buffer headers, at offset This form is seen in most out-of-box shipping versions of Windows. The data block begins after the OS Version structure, at offset This form was introduced in a relatively recent Service Pack, and is seen on currently-patched versions of Windows , Windows XP, and Windows The "most-minimal" well-formed Type 1 message, therefore, would be: The client is requesting that the server send information regarding the authentication target Request Target is set.
The client is running Windows 5. Note that the supplied workstation and domain are in OEM format. Additionally, the order in which the security buffer data blocks are laid out is unimportant; in the example, the workstation data is placed before the domain data. After creating the Type 1 message, the client sends it to the server. The server analyzes the message, much as we have just done, and creates a reply. This brings us to our next topic, the Type 2 message. It serves to complete the negotiation of options with the client, and also provides a challenge to the client.
It may optionally contain information about the authentication target. Typical Type 2 message flags include: Negotiate Unicode 0x The server sets this flag to indicate that it will be using Unicode strings. This should only be set if the client indicates in the Type 1 message that it supports Unicode. Either this flag or Negotiate OEM should be set, but not both. This should only be set if the client indicates in the Type 1 message that it will support OEM strings.
Either this flag or Negotiate Unicode should be set, but not both. Request Target 0x This flag is often set in the Type 2 message; while it has a well-defined meaning within the Type 1 message, its semantics here are unclear. Negotiate Local Call 0x The server sets this flag to inform the client that the server and client are on the same machine. The server provides a local security context handle with the message.
Target Type Domain 0x The server sets this flag to indicate that the authentication target is being sent with the message and represents a domain. Target Type Server 0x The server sets this flag to indicate that the authentication target is being sent with the message and represents a server. Target Type Share 0x The server apparently sets this flag to indicate that the authentication target is being sent with the message and represents a network share.
This has not been confirmed. Negotiate Target Info 0x The server sets this flag to indicate that a Target Information block is being sent with the message. Negotiate 0x Indicates that this server supports strong bit encryption. Negotiate 56 0x Indicates that this server supports medium bit encryption. The target name is a security buffer containing the name of the authentication target. This is typically sent in response to a client requesting the target via the Request Target flag in the Type 1 message.
This can contain a domain, server, or apparently a network share. The target name can be either Unicode or OEM, as indicated by the presence of the appropriate flag in the Type 2 message. The challenge is an 8-byte block of random data. The client will use this to formulate a response.
The context field is typically populated when Negotiate Local Call is set. It contains an SSPI context handle, which allows the client to "short-circuit" authentication and effectively circumvent responding to the challenge.
Physically, the context is two long values. This is covered in greater detail later, in the " Local Authentication " section.
The target information is a security buffer containing a Target Information block, which is used in calculating the NTLMv2 response discussed later. This is composed of a sequence of subblocks, each consisting of: Field Content Description Type short Indicates the type of data in this subblock: Server name 2 0x Domain name 3 0x Fully-qualified DNS host name i. DNS domain name i. Always sent in Unicode, even when OEM is indicated by the message flags. Despite the fact that there are several securities regulatory bodies in the country, none have yet to establish regulations for binary options.
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There are no binary options firms registered in Canada. Some people may want to use their own identifiers so they can link activity in a meaningful way to downstream systems, such as inventory systems. If no identifier is specified, Guardium creates one based on the inspection engine parameters.
To pull the identifier information into your access domain reports, add the Tap Identifier attribute from the session entity as shown here. The identifiers in this report are all system defined.
Fine-grained access control is a critical privacy and security feature because it can restrict what data different users can see and under what conditions. A main use case for this capability is dynamic data masking, but you'll see that with Guardium other use cases can be supported.
Fine-grained access control in Guardium provides an extremely powerful and flexible form of access control that allows organizations to quickly address a wide range of security concerns, such as:. The Guardium implementation of fine-grained access control has the following characteristics:.
With Guardium, you can use its existing policy-based controls over several runtime environmental conditions, such as particular users, client IPs, objects, and commands to determine whether and how data will be masked. The Guardium implementation of fine-grained access control is known as query rewrite because Guardium can dynamically rewrite the queries between the database client and database server.
By rewriting queries, you can:. Guardium fine-grained access control relies on the following interacting components:. Figure 49, below, is a simple example. A query rewrite definition is how you specify to Guardium how you want a query to be rewritten at runtime, assuming the policy runtime conditions are true. Simply add that query rewrite definition to the policy action called Query Rewrite: The Query Rewrite Builder includes a space for building the query rewrite definitions and a place to test it against actual SQL statements.
The definition is really a set of directions to the system for rewriting the syntax of a query. So, if we add a WHERE clause to the model query, this is how it is translated in Guardium as a "from-to" definition; it is basically saying that when Guardium sees something at runtime that is defined in query definition, it will change it FROM something TO something else. This is why it's important that you use policy rules to specify which objects tables or views you want this WHERE clause to be added to.
To clarify, the following figure shows an end-to-end view of a query rewrite definition that we created to redact any rows of data that are government customers. The security policy invokes this query rewrite definition whenever the runtime table is customer and the user is Joe.
There is a new report domain, Query Rewrite, that you can use to create activity reports of when a query was rewritten. Some organizations would like to write audit data outside of Guardium collector for reasons such as:.
In Version 10, it's possible to concurrently write audit data to both the collector database and JSON-formatted files that can be transferred to a MongoDB document database. Unlike the Guardium collector, the MongoDB database is not a hardened repository.
You should carefully restrict and monitor access to the audit data by using Guardium. As shown in Figure 54 , when properly configured, the parsed audit data is sent simultaneously to the Guardium collector repository and written in JSON format to a file in the following directory: When a file is ready to be loaded into MongoDB, it will be marked with the suffix. The followig screenshot shows an example of selecting a Guardium audit record after it loads into MongoDB. To enable the collection of audit data in JSON format, you must configure the following:.
It is not necessary to remove the action from all policy rules. This release has a considerable number of enhancements to improve the performance and throughput capabilities of S-TAP. However, it is best to follow the recommended upgrade strategies and get the entire environment on to V It works by preserving multiple threads from the point of traffic interception to the point at which traffic is sent to the appliance.
If you specify only one collector, then all traffic goes to the same collector. The total number has to be five or less and this is enforced by the user interface. Make sure to use the same policy on all the connected Guardium systems. If the policies are different, there's no guarantee which policy is in effect on a given session. This table summarizes the new and changed support for database platforms.
More details are included below the table for some of the more substantive changes. Database support is constantly being enhanced and updated via the service stream. The system requirements page on ibm. See Related topics for a link. Guardium continues to evolve its Hadoop support to make it easier to collect events in real time to provide more targeted reporting capability and more protection capabilities.
Because of the way Hive and Impala traffic is processed in Hadoop, you must do the following in the blocking policy rule:. Redaction is configured by using extrusion rules in Guardium policies.
Here is an example of a Hive query in which social security and credit card numbers were redacted. New inspection engines that target specific Hadoop components provide improved parsing and reduce the amount of manual work to report on data elements, such as user name. New options for inspection engine protocol are:. Based on feedback from our customers, Guardium now includes built-in reports that more succinctly address required reporting requirements, including the following:. Apache Ranger is used in Hortonworks for native access control and auditing.
Guardium introduces an integration with Ranger that enables Ranger audit data to be directed to Guardium and also enables Guardium to leverage Ranger access control policies for blocking.
The following are benefits that can be gained from using this integration:. This integration is available for Hortonworks 2. This section provides a high-level overview. As shown in the following graphic, multistream load balancing support enables the distribution of monitoring events in a round-robin fashion across up to six Guardium collectors. There are many enhancements that increase flexibility and improve the level of detail for auditing.
You no longer need to enable IFI Audit class 1 to audit negative return codes, which might improve performance on the DB2 subsystem as well.
At runtime, S-TAP will check the database user against the quarantine policy on the Guardium collector. To avoid performance impacts to all other users, the SQL will still be processed.
However, as soon as the verdict comes back from the Guardium collector, any subsequent activity by that user will be blocked. The figure below shows this flow. If this is not heeded, it is possible that S-TAP would never send an event to the collector that would match the policy rule, rendering the quarantine rule basically a no-op.
All the definitions are now stored in the Guardium collector database. This collection does require some application and configuration changes that will signal the IMS S-TAP that a "special" event is being sent.
The syntax and rules for the application event are consistent with other platforms and are documented in the Guardium Knowledge Center see Related topics. To summarize, the first two bytes of the string is the ccsid of the encoding in hex format only UTF-8 is supported. Following these first 2 bytes is a UTF-8 string in the following format. Data sets auditing includes enhancements for load balancing, auditing enhancements, and setup configuration validation.
Audit events can now be collected for data sets that reside on tape. No special configuration is required to enable this. An example report is shown below:. This allows for more granular reporting of access to partitioned data sets. In V10, the specific member name is reported. Finally, a new setup check was added at agent startup to ensure that the proper SMF records are activated for auditing.
The agent will continue to operate but without proper SMF setup, audit data cannot be collected. Here is an example that shows where SMF Records 17, 18, and 62 are not activated. The S-TAP for IBM i was re-architected to support the following critical enterprise readiness features for scalability, high availability, and security:.
Previously, they were stored in a table on the DB2 for the i database. Parameters that are related to filtering are still in the original table.
Microsoft SQL server encrypts all of its logins by default. Optionally, all data can be encrypted by using the force-encryption option.
Guardium must decrypt login and optional data traffic to be able to detect, for example, which database user is performing the activity. It did this on the appliance by correlating decrypted login information with incoming data streams. Now, decryption is occurring on the database client side. Client-side correlation eliminates all of the problems of appliance-side correlation by providing only decrypted network streams to the Guardium appliance. The appliance can inspect the contents of the traffic immediately, make decisions that are based on loaded policies, and then trigger actions based on those decisions.
This capability produces negligible processor usage on the server in initial performance testing in IBM lab. Your results might vary and I recommend that you test this in your own environment. There are no configuration changes required, and it supports all Guardium-supported versions of SQL Server. As always, see the V10 System Requirements document on ibm. The following are new platforms supported by S-TAP:. Specifically, database entitlement reporting and the configuration audit system are now part of the single offering.
With V10, Guardium is including over tests. Guardium has a strong portfolio of tests that dig deep into hardening database security across many DBMS types. In many of these DBMS types, Guardium is either the first in the market or the only one who offers a solution. The following new database platforms can now be tested by using Guardium Vulnerability Assessment:. Guardium is the first and, as of this writing, only solution to support vulnerability testing for MongoDB.
Supported releases include MongoDB 2. Guardium includes over 50 tests that cover CVE patches, configuration best practices, and for users with elevated privileges. The figure below shows an improvement over time and an example of the kind of detailed recommendation you get with Guardium.
DB2 for i is a widely used database system across a variety of industries. Guardium has worked closely with the security subject matter experts in DB2 for i to come up with a comprehensive set of over tests and entitlement reporting for IBM i 6. Configuration audit system is not supported for DB2 for i. Guardium has a suite of 65 tests. Types of tests include:. Teradata Aster is a database platform that is typically used for data warehousing and analytic applications.
No other vendor offers vulnerability assessments for Aster. Create security assessments to run on the queen node as all database connections for Aster Data goes through the queen node only. Testing on worker and loader nodes is only required when performing CAS tests file permission and file ownership. The following configuration controls provide greater control over the behavior of VA tests:. To avoid having entire test suites fail because of a problem with one test, there is now a query timeout configuration for both query-based and Java-based privilege tests.
When a test takes more than 10 minutes to execute, it will time out with a message specific to the DBMS type driver. This mechanism can be turned off or modified by using the following CLI commands:. Do not set the timeout value to greater than 30 minutes. To avoid the rare condition, which excessive violations cause memory issues, Guardium is limiting the number of rows returned per test to 20, rows.
This default can be overridden by using the following CLI commands:. The purpose of this article was to give Guardium users a relatively detailed overview of the new features in the Guardium data security and protection portfolio. I hope that I accomplished that mission and that you will consider trying V Over time, we will continue to publish more articles, videos, and tech talks to help you get up to speed on this exciting new version.
Sign in or register to add and subscribe to comments. Comments Sign in or register to add and subscribe to comments. Subscribe me to comment notifications. The classifier will stop processing after the first hit in the table. The classifier will record the first hit for any given column and ignore it thereafter for subsequent rules. The classifier will record hits for all columns for all rules.
Added support for Kerberos. Added support for Cassandra 3.