Auxiliary verb in mandarin
Adjectives can be used attributively, before a noun. Gradable adjectives can be modified by words meaning "very", etc. When adjectives co-occur with classifiers, they normally follow the classifier.
However, with most common classifiers, when the number is "one", it is also possible to place adjectives like "big" and "small" before the classifier, for emphasis: Adjectives can also be used predicatively.
It is nonetheless possible for a copula to be used in such sentences, to emphasize the adjective: Adverbs and adverbial phrases normally come in a position before the verb, but after the subject of the verb. In sentences with auxiliary verbs, the adverb usually precedes the auxiliary verb as well as the main verb. Some adverbs of time and attitude "every day", "perhaps", etc. Some verbs take a prepositional phrase following the verb and its direct object. These are generally obligatory constituents, such that the sentence would not make sense if they were omitted.
It is not generally possible for a single verb to be followed by both an object and an adverbial complement of this type although there are exceptions in cases where the complement expresses duration, frequency or goal. Aspect markers can then appear only on the second instance of the verb. The typical Chinese word order "XVO", where an oblique complement such as a locative prepositional phrase precedes the verb, while a direct object comes after the verb, is very rare cross-linguistically; in fact, it is only in varieties of Chinese that this is attested as the typical ordering.
Expressions of location in Chinese may include a preposition before the noun , a postposition after the noun , both, or neither.
Chinese prepositions are commonly known as coverbs — see further below. If a noun is modified so as to denote a specific location as in "this A locative expression can therefore appear as a predicate without the need for any additional copula.
The adjective itself is not modified. However, it is normally only used when its complement is a noun or noun phrase. The English existential phrase " there is " "there are", etc. Chinese does not have grammatical markers of tense.
The time at which action is conceived as taking place past, present, future can be indicated by expressions of time "yesterday", "now", etc. However, Chinese does have markers of aspect , which is a feature of grammar that gives information about the temporal flow of events. There are two aspect markers that are especially commonly used with past events: Some authors, however, do not regard guo , or the zhe described below, as markers of aspect. There is also a sentence-final particle le , which serves a somewhat different purpose.
The perfective le presents the viewpoint of "an event in its entirety". Some examples of its use:. The above may be compared with the following examples with guo , and with the examples with sentence-final le given under Particles. The experiential guo "ascribes to a subject the property of having experienced the event".
The first of these precedes the verb, and is usually used for ongoing actions or dynamic events — it may be translated as " be in the process of -ing " or " be in the middle of -ing ". The second follows the verb, and is used mostly for static situations.
Both markers may occur in the same clause, however, e. The delimitative aspect denotes an action that goes on only for some time, "doing something 'a little bit'". Other compounds may be reduplicated, but for general emphasis rather than delimitative aspect.
As mentioned above , the fact that a verb is intended to be understood in the passive voice is not always marked in Chinese. The construction with a passive marker is normally used only when there is a sense of misfortune or adversity. This can be placed before a verb, preposition or adverb to negate it. I not eat chicken , "I don't eat chicken. In coverb constructions, the negator may come before the coverb preposition or before the full verb, the latter being more emphatic.
In wh -questions in Chinese, the question word is not fronted , that is, it stays in the position in the sentence that would be occupied by the item being asked about. With two-syllable verbs, sometimes only the first syllable is repeated: It is also possible to use the A-not-A construction with prepositions coverbs and phrases headed by them, as with full verbs. Second-person imperative sentences are formed in the same way as statements, but like in English, the subject "you" is often omitted.
See also Particles below. Chinese makes frequent use of serial verb constructions , or verb stacking, where two or more verbs or verb phrases are concatenated together.
This frequently involves either verbal complements appearing after the main verb, or coverb phrases appearing before the main verb, but other variations of the construction occur as well. A main verb may be preceded by an auxiliary verb , as in English. The auxiliary normally follows an adverb, if present. In shortened sentences an auxiliary may be used without a main verb, analogously to English sentences such as "I can. The active verb of a sentence may be suffixed with a second verb, which usually indicates either the result of the first action, or the direction in which it took the subject.
When such information is applicable, it is generally considered mandatory. The phenomenon is sometimes called double verbs.
This verb means "to finish", but when used as a complement for negation purposes it may merely indicate inability. The complement of result is a highly productive and frequently used construction. Another example, in a whole sentence:. Chinese has a class of words, called coverbs , which in some respects resemble both verbs and prepositions. They appear with a following object or complement , and generally denote relationships that would be expressed by prepositions or postpositions in other languages.
However, they are often considered to be lexically verbs, and some of them can also function as full verbs. When a coverb phrase appears in a sentence together with a main verb phrase, the result is essentially a type of serial verb construction. The coverb phrase, being an adverbial , precedes the main verb in most cases.
I help you find him I will find him for you. I sit aeroplane from Shanghai arrive Beijing go. I'll go from Shanghai to Beijing by plane. Here there are three coverbs: Because coverbs essentially function as prepositions, they can also be referred to simply as prepositions.
The situation is complicated somewhat by the fact that the location markers discussed above , which also have meanings similar to those of certain English prepositions although in grammatical behavior they are more like nouns , are often called "postpositions".
Each verb may independently be negated or given the le aspect marker. Consecutive verb phrases may also be used to indicate consecutive events. Use of the le aspect marker with the first verb may imply that this is the main verb of the sentence, the second verb phrase merely indicating the purpose. Use of this le with the second verb changes this emphasis, and may require a sentence-final le particle in addition.
For constructions with consecutive verb phrases containing the same verb, see under Adverbs. For immediate repetition of a verb, see Reduplication and Aspects. Another case is the causative or pivotal construction. Sentences of this type often parallel the equivalent English pattern except that English may insert the infinitive marker "to". In the following example the construction is used twice:. Chinese has a number of sentence-final particles — these are weak syllables , spoken with neutral tone , and placed at the end of the sentence to which they refer.
The latter is described as a marker of perfective aspect , whereas the sentence-final particle is sometimes described as an inceptive or as a marker of perfect aspect.
The two uses of le may in fact be traced back to two entirely different words. Consider the following sentence:. This le might be interpreted as either the suffixal perfective marker or the sentence-final perfect marker.
In the former case it might mean "mother has come" she has just arrived at the door, for example , while in the latter it might mean "mother is coming after all" where she had previously said she would not be coming, but has just changed her decision. It is even possible for the two kinds of le to co-occur: Sentences with similar meaning can be produced using relative clauses these may be called pseudo-cleft sentences , for example: However Chinese quite often uses no conjunction where English would have "and".
Such connectors may appear at the start of a clause or before the verb phrase. There are also similar constructions for conditionals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article concerns modern standard Chinese. For the grammars of other forms or varieties of Chinese, see their respective articles via links on Chinese language and varieties of Chinese. Another structure for Chinese sentences is topic-comment. That is, the first thing mentioned is the topic of discussion and then the speaker will add a comment following that.
It is used to emphasize a certain part of the sentence. In the following example, the speaker wants to emphasize that he is going to read the particular book being discussed.
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