El agente comercio internacional peru monografias
This was particularly evident in the wake of the Asian financial crisis in when ideological conservatives largely rejected IMF and World Bank demands that future economic assistance be conditioned on accelerated reform measures.
In the face of dire predictions all around, the Vietnamese economy surprised most observers when it revived in the present decade. And Vietnam has continued to experience relatively strong economic growth as the decade progresses. Vigorous growth of 7. That said, Vietnam has now entered a new phase of development requiring more extensive economic reforms.
In this context, it was hardly surprising that Prime Minister Khai, in his formal remarks at the White House, stressed economic issues in general and U.
To remain competitive in regional and world markets, Hanoi must maintain and accelerate reform momentum in areas like state enterprise reform, land use rights, private sector development, and banking reform. On the contrary, the Communist Party has appeared to offer its people an implicit deal — we provide you increasing economic opportunity in return for our retention of complete political control.
As the economy expanded in the late s and s, this approach worked for a time; but as the new millennium dawned, the Party faced daunting challenges in reconciling deepening economic reforms with entrenched political interests. The latter immediately instituted several leadership changes, including new appointments to the Central Committee departments of ideology and internal security. Instituting a variety of new policies, he emphasized the fight against corruption as well as a campaign for party-building, pressing for implementation of a directive requiring all state and Party officials to disclose their assets.
Nevertheless, corruption remains endemic throughout the Vietnamese system, infecting the highest levels of state. For example, the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development was sacked in June over links to a massive embezzlement case, and the chair of the management board of the National Shipping Lines was dismissed in October for the illegal authorization of petroleum contracts.
The Vietnamese government can point to signs of limited success in curbing graft; however, the elimination of corruption in Vietnam necessitates far-reaching changes in the accountability of public officials and the transparency of government decision-making. To date, Hanoi has proved unable or unwilling to make these changes. While General Secretary Manh has been successful in implementing the economic strategy of the Ninth Party Congress and improving the capacity of the Party and state to establish and implement public policy, it must be recognized that such steps are not necessarily movement in the direction of political liberalization.
The Vietnamese Communist Party has slowly expanded personal freedoms in recent years, but questioning Party rule or assembling to challenge Party or state authority remain expressly prohibited. While the Vietnamese Communist Party has been notably unsuccessful in wrestling with corruption, it has proved far more efficient in dealing with its critics. In February , for example, massive demonstrations involving thousands of ethnic minorities broke out in the Central Highlands.
The demonstrators protested local government corruption, land appropriation by lowland Vietnamese settlers, lack of religious freedoms, and a denial of basic human rights.
Hanoi quickly responded, dispatching police and military units to restore order and arresting several alleged ringleaders. When it later became evident to the Party that the real problem was encroachment on ancestral homelands by lowland settlers in collusion with corrupt local officials, General Secretary Manh visited the affected provinces and sought to address ethnic minority grievances.
Protests again broke out in the Central Highlands in April , again decrying issues of land and religious freedom together with the restrictions on freedom of movement, communication, and religious practice in place since The harassment of cyber dissidents in Vietnam offers yet another mirror into the ongoing suppression of political activists.
Six or more cyber dissidents were arrested in alone for posting information on the Internet deemed illegal by the regime. Reflecting official concern with the power of the Internet, Prime Minister Khai in mid ordered a countrywide inspection of Internet access. These attempts to control the Internet belied earlier Vietnamese policies aimed at using information technology to spur economic development. Likewise, numerous international groups, like Human Rights Watch, have reported a deterioration in recent years in the treatment of various Vietnamese activists, including cyber dissidents, non-sanctioned Buddhist organizations, democracy activists, Mennonites, and other ethnic minority Christians.
The lack of an independent, privately-run media is another concern. Domestic electronic and print media remain under strict government control as does access to the Internet. In The Washington Post interview, Prime Minister Khai exposed the full extent to which the Vietnamese government remains in denial on the human rights issue. It is difficult to overstate the importance of the Vietnamese visit to America. Phan Van Khai is the first Vietnamese prime minister to travel to the White House since the end of the Vietnam War, a war which killed more than 58, Americans and well over a million Vietnamese.
Acesso em abr Cadastre-se Login Rio Grande, 07 de Abril de O tratamento nacional dos investimentos estrangeiros. Instituto Rio Branco, Acesso em 07 de agosto de Arbitragem, lei brasileira e praxe internacional. Revista Forense, Rio de Janeiro: The recent wave of Arbitrations against Argentina under bilateral investment treaties: The University of Miami inter-American law review, Miami: The teleology of international investment law: The Journal of World Investment and Trade.
As arbitragens internacionais relacionadas a investimentos: Acesso em 22 de maio de Acesso em 10 de setembro de Acesso em 3 de setembro de Acesso em 30 de agosto de The arbitration review of the Americas Acesso em 04 de maio de Brasil e investimentos internacionais: Arbitragem e investimentos estrangeiros.
Revista brasileira de arbitragem, Porto Alegre: Bilateral investment agreements play only a minor role in attracting FDI.