# Put call option erklarung

That is, the buyer wants the value of the put option to increase by a decline in the price of the underlying asset below the strike price. The writer seller of a put is long on the underlying asset and short on the put option itself. That is, the seller wants the option to become worthless by an increase in the price of the underlying asset above the strike price.

Generally, a put option that is purchased is referred to as a long put and a put option that is sold is referred to as a short put. A naked put , also called an uncovered put , is a put option whose writer the seller does not have a position in the underlying stock or other instrument. This strategy is best used by investors who want to accumulate a position in the underlying stock, but only if the price is low enough.

If the buyer fails to exercise the options, then the writer keeps the option premium as a "gift" for playing the game. If the underlying stock's market price is below the option's strike price when expiration arrives, the option owner buyer can exercise the put option, forcing the writer to buy the underlying stock at the strike price. That allows the exerciser buyer to profit from the difference between the stock's market price and the option's strike price.

But if the stock's market price is above the option's strike price at the end of expiration day, the option expires worthless, and the owner's loss is limited to the premium fee paid for it the writer's profit. The seller's potential loss on a naked put can be substantial. If the stock falls all the way to zero bankruptcy , his loss is equal to the strike price at which he must buy the stock to cover the option minus the premium received.

The potential upside is the premium received when selling the option: During the option's lifetime, if the stock moves lower, the option's premium may increase depending on how far the stock falls and how much time passes.

If it does, it becomes more costly to close the position repurchase the put, sold earlier , resulting in a loss. If the stock price completely collapses before the put position is closed, the put writer potentially can face catastrophic loss. In order to protect the put buyer from default, the put writer is required to post margin.

The put buyer does not need to post margin because the buyer would not exercise the option if it had a negative payoff. A buyer thinks the price of a stock will decrease. He pays a premium which he will never get back, unless it is sold before it expires. The buyer has the right to sell the stock at the strike price. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey A Practical Guide for Managers. Energy derivative Freight derivative Inflation derivative Property derivative Weather derivative. Retrieved from " https: Articles needing additional references from October All articles needing additional references. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 30 March , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. With many financial instruments, such as stocks, the only way to take advantage of leverage is to borrow funds to take a position and this isn't always possible for everyone.

With some instruments, though, leverage is possible in other ways. One of the biggest benefits of trading options is that options contracts themselves are a leverage tool, and they allow you to greatly multiply the power of your starting capital.

On this page we look at exactly how leverage works in options trading and how it's calculated. Buying options contracts allows you to control a greater amount of the underlying security, such as stocks, than you could by actually trading the stocks themselves. Put simply, if you had a certain amount of capital to invest then you can create the potential for far higher profits through buying options than you could through buying stocks.

This is essentially because the cost of options contracts is typically much lower than the cost of their underlying security, and yet you can benefit from price movements in the underlying security in the same way. If the stock went up in value, then you would be able to sell those shares for a profit. That is essentially the principle of how leverage in options trading works, in very simple terms. This should illustrate why it's possible to make significant profits without necessarily needing a lot of starting capital; which in turn is why so many investors choose to trade options.

To truly understand leverage in greater detail, you need to understand how it's calculated, which we have explained below. A common misconception is that the leverage factor is then ten and you would therefore make ten times as much money. However, that isn't actually the case.