Software di simulazione di trading
A space flight simulation game is a genre of flight simulator video games that lets players experience space flight to varying degrees of realism. Many games feature space combat, and some games feature commerce and trading in addition to combat. Some games in the genre aim to recreate a realistic portrayal of space flight, involving the calculation of orbits within a more complete physics simulation than pseudo space flight simulators.
Others focus on gameplay rather than simulating space flight in all its facets. The realism of the latter games is limited to what the game designer deems to be appropriate for the gameplay, instead of focusing on the realism of moving the spacecraft in space. Some "flight models" use a physics system based on Newtonian physicsbut these are usually limited to maneuvering the craft in its direct environment, and do not take into consideration the orbital calculations that would make such a game a simulator.
Many of the pseudo simulators feature faster than light travel. Examples of true simulators which aim at piloting a space craft in a manner that conforms with the laws of nature include OrbiterKerbal Space Program and Microsoft Space Simulator. Examples of more fantastical video games that bend the rules of physics in favor of streamlining and entertainment, include Wing CommanderStar Wars: The modern space flight game genre emerged at the point when home computers became sufficiently powerful to draw basic wireframe graphics in real-time.
Games similar to Elite are sometimes called " Elite -clones". Space flight games and simulators, at one time popular, had for much of the new millennium been considered a "dead" genre. Orbiter Spaceflight Simulator ; and 's commercially released Kerbal Space Program was notably well-received, even by the aerospace community. Dangerousand No Mans Skyhave brought new attention to the space software di simulazione di trading and combat game subgenre.
Realistic space simulators seek to represent a vessel's behaviour under the influence of the Laws of Physics. As such, the player normally concentrates on following checklists or planning tasks. Piloting is generally limited to dockings, landings or orbital maneuvers. The reward for the player is on mastering real or realistic spacecraft, celestial mechanics and astronautics.
Classical games with this approach include Space Shuttle: A Journey into SpaceRendezvous: If the definition is expanded to include decision making and planning, then Buzz Aldrin's Race Into Space is also notable for historical accuracy and detail.
On this game the player takes the role of Administrator of NASA or Head of the Soviet Space Program with the ultimate goal of being the first side to conduct a successful manned moon landing.
Most recently Orbiter and Space Shuttle Mission provide more elaborate simulations, with realistic 3D virtual cockpits and external views. Kerbal Space Program  can be considered a space simulator, even though it portrays an imaginary universe with tweaked physics, masses and distances to enhance gameplay.
Nevertheless, the physics and rocket design principles are much software di simulazione di trading realistic than in the space combat or trading subgenres. The game Lunar Flight simulates flying around the lunar surface in a craft resembling software di simulazione di trading Apollo Lunar Module.
Most games in the space combat  genre feature futuristic scenarios involving space flight and extra planetary combat. Such games generally place the player into the controls of a small starfighter or smaller starship in a military force of similar and larger spaceships and don't take into account the physics of space flight, usually often citing software di simulazione di trading technological advancement to explain the lack thereof.
Exceptions include the first Independence War and the Star Trek: It should be software di simulazione di trading that I-War also features Newtonian style physics for the behaviour of the space craft, but not orbital mechanics. Space combat games tend to be mission-based, as opposed to the more open-ended nature of space trading and combat games. The general formula for the space trading and combat game    which has changed little since its genesis, is for the player to begin in a relatively small, outdated ship with little money or status and for the player to work his or her way up, gaining in status and power through trading, exploration, combat or a mix of different methods.
Software di simulazione di trading examples of the genre include EliteWing Commander: Privateerand Freelancer. In some instances, plot plays only software di simulazione di trading limited role and only a loose narrative framework tends to be provided. In certain titles of the X seriesfor instance, players may ignore the plot for as long as they wish and are even given the option to disable the plot completely and instead play in sandbox mode.
Games of this type often allow the player to choose among multiple roles to play and multiple paths to victory. This aspect of the genre is very popular, but some people have complained that, in some titles, the leeway given to the player too often is only superficial, and that, in reality, the roles offered to players are very similar, and open-ended play too frequently restricted by scripted sequences.
All space trading and combat games feature the software di simulazione di trading gameplay elements of directly controlling the flight of some sort of space vessel, generally armed, and of navigating from one area to another for a variety of reasons.
As technology has improved it has been possible software di simulazione di trading implement a number of extensions to gameplay, such as dynamic economies and cooperative online play. Overall, however, the core gameplay mechanics of the genre have changed little over the years.
Some recent games, such as 's EVE Onlinehave expanded the scope of the experience by including thousands of simultaneous online players in what is sometimes referred to as a "living universe"    —a dream some have held since the genre's early beginnings.
An additional sub-class of space trading games eliminate combat entirely, focusing instead entirely on trading and economic manipulation in order to achieve success. Most modern space flight games on the personal computer allow a player to utilise a combination of the WASD keys of the keyboard and mouse as a means of controlling the game games such as Microsoft's Freelancer use this control system exclusively .
By far the most popular control system among genre enthusiasts, however, is the joystick. The lack of uptake among the majority of modern gamers has also software di simulazione di trading joysticks a sort of software di simulazione di trading anachronism, though some new controller designs  and simplification of controls offer the promise that space sims may be playable in their full capacity on gaming consoles at some time in the future.
Reunionsometimes considered one of the more cumbersome and difficult series to master within the trading and combat genre,   was initially planned for the Xbox but later cancelled. Realistic simulators feature spacecraft systems and instrument simulation, using a combination of extensive keyboard shortcuts and mouse clicks on virtual instrument panels.
Most of the maneuvers and operations consist of setting certain systems into the desired configuration, or in setting autopilots. Real time hands on piloting can happen, depending on the simulated spacecraft. For example, it's common to use a joystick analog control to land a space shuttle or any other spaceplane or the LEM or similar landers.
Dockings can be performed more precisely using the numerical keypad. Overall, the simulations have more complex control systems than game, with the limit being the physical reproduction of the actual simulated spacecraft see SimPit.
Early attempts at 3D space simulation date back as far as 's Spasiman online multi-player space simulator in which players attempt to destroy each other's ships. The earliest known space trader dates to 's Star Tradera game where the entire interface was text-only and included a star map with multiple ports buying and selling 6 commodities. Elite has made a lasting impression on developers, worldwide, extending even into different genres.
The Quest for EarthHard Truck: Apocalyptic Wars and Flatspace likewise all claim Elite as a source of inspiration. Elite software di simulazione di trading named one of the sixteen most influential games software di simulazione di trading history at Telespiele, a German technology and games trade show,  and is being exhibited at such places as the London Science Museum in the " Game On " exhibition organized and toured by the Barbican Art Gallery.
Elite is one of the most popularly requested games to be remade,  and some argue that it is still the best example of software di simulazione di trading genre to date, with more recent titles—including its sequel—not rising up to its level.
Dangerous was released on the 16 of Decemberfollowing a successful Kickstarter campaign. Though not as well known as EliteTrade Wars is noteworthy as the first multiplayer space trader. A BBS doorSoftware di simulazione di trading Wars was released in  as an entirely different branch of the space trader tree, having been inspired by Hunt the Wumpusthe board game Riskand the original space trader, Star Trader.
As a pure software di simulazione di trading trader, Trade Wars lacked any space flight simulator elements, instead featuring abstract open world trading and combat set in an outer space populated by both human and NPC opponents. Elite was not the first game to take flight game mechanics into outer space. Other notable earlier examples include Star RaidersSpace Shuttle: Strategic Operations Simulator which featured five different controls to learn, six different enemies, and 40 different simulation levels of play, making it one of the most elaborate vector games ever released.
Star Lusterreleased for the NES console and arcades infeatured a cockpit view, a radar displaying enemy and base locations, the ability to warp anywhere, and a date system keeping track of the current date. Some tabletop and board games, such as Traveller or Merchant of Venusalso feature themes of space combat and trade.
Traveller influenced the development of Elite the main character in Traveller is named "Jamison"; the main character in Elite is named "Jameson" and Jumpgate Evolution. Set beginning in the yearand characterized by designer Chris Roberts as " World War II in space," it features a multinational cast of pilots from the " Terran Confederation " flying missions against the predatory, aggressive Kilrathia feline warrior race heavily inspired by the Kzinti of Larry Niven 's Known Space universe.
Game designer Chris Crawford said in an interview that Wing Commander "raised the bar for the whole industry," as the game was five times more expensive to create than most of its contemporaries. Because the game was highly successful, other publishers had to match its production value in order to compete. This forced a large portion of the video game industry to become more conservative, as big-budget games need to be an assured hit for it to be profitable in any way.
Crawford opined that Wing Commander in particular affected the marketing and economics of computer games and reestablished the "action game" software di simulazione di trading the most lucrative type of computer game. Crowdfunding has been a good source for space sims in recent years, however.
Dangerous was also successfully crowdfunded on Kickstarter in November and December The game was completed and released inand expansions are being released in stages, or "seasons". No Man's Sky is another self-published, open-ended space sim though this one was not crowdfunded.
Star CitizenElite: Dangerous and No Man's Sky are three ambitious games that many players hoped would fulfill the long-held dream of an open, persistent universe that they can explore, share, and fight each other in.
In a Polygon opinion article, Charlie Hall compared the three games, software di simulazione di trading Elite: Dangerous for its look and feel, as well as its combat, but criticizing it for not allowing players to step outside of their ships. He praises Star Citizen' s combat module, Arena Commanderbut says the persistent universe module is currently unfinished and unstable. He praises No Man's Sky for the letting the player explore and walk on a planet's surface while encountering alien life forms, but says it is least like the others, having poor combat and a smaller scope overall.
The game does not yet have working multiplayer, for instance. PC Gamer writer Luke Winkie software di simulazione di trading compared Star Citizen to No Man's Skydescribing Star Citizen as "the other super ambitious, controversial space software di simulazione di trading on the horizon", and indicating that fans of the genre, disappointed in No Man's Sky were turning to the as-yet-unfinished Star Citizenwhile sometimes expressing concerns should the latter fail to deliver.
On March 10,the space flight simulator Kerbal Space Program reached the top 5 best selling games after its release on Steam.
The open source community has also been active, with projects such as FS2 Open and Vega Strike serving as platforms for non-professional efforts. In a hobbyist space flight simulator project was realized under usage of the open source Pioneer software. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For simulating the outer space environment, see Space simulator. Construction and management simulation Business simulation software di simulazione di trading City-building game Government simulation Life simulation game Digital pet God game Social simulation game Dating sim Sports game Racing game Sim racing Sports management game Vehicle simulations Flight simulator Amateur flight simulation Combat flight simulator Space flight simulator Space combat game Space trading game Submarine simulator Train simulator Vehicular combat game.
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