Thread hacking the game with binary options math
Links Related Sites Tiny Utilities Sponsors Developer Pages Rob Bernhard Denys - resume - kernel inlines - kernel size - mboot - linld - init must die - no ifup - unscd Frequently Asked Questions This is a collection of some of the more frequently asked questions about Busybox.
Some of the questions even have answers. General questions What is Busybox? How can I get started using Busybox? How do I configure Busybox? How do I build Busybox with a cross-compiler? How do I build a Busybox-based system? Which Linux kernel versions are supported? Which architectures does Busybox run on? Which C libraries are supported? Where can I find other small utilities since Busybox does thread hacking the game with binary options math include the features I want?
How come you don't answer all my questions on the mailing list instantly? I demand that you help me with all of my problems Right Now! I need help with Busybox! What should I do? Are you willing to provide support contracts?
Can I include Busybox as part of the software on my device? I want to use Busybox as part of the Linux-based firmware for a new device. Will it create any license issues in future?
Troubleshooting I think I found a bug in Busybox! What should I do?! I have trouble installing Busybox on my phone! I'm using an ancient version from the dawn of time and something's broken. Can you backport fixes for free? Busybox init isn't working! I am observing a bug in BusyBox on an thread hacking the game with binary options math platform. Why do I keep getting "sh: Why doesn't Control-C work within my shell? I selected "standalone thread hacking the game with binary options math option and now I have problems Misc.
Programming questions What are the goals of Busybox? What is the design of Busybox? How is the source code organized? The applet directories The Busybox shared library libbb I want to make Busybox even smaller, how do I go about it? Adding an applet to Busybox What standards does Busybox adhere to? In my modem, Busybox v1. I can reach my modem's Telnet interface and I can reach shell prompt. I want to change configuration, and add some tools.
Can I enable FTP? If I edit a file on the device, I can't save it, I get 'filesystem is read only' error. How can I save a changed file? Questions like the example above is a sign that the thread hacking the game with binary options math asking it does not fully understand what Busybox is. Busybox is not a complete solution for running modems, or wireless access points, etc. Busybox is only a set of programs.
Even though it is a fairly comprehensive set of programs needed to run a Linux system, these programs per se can not "run a modem", just like construction worker's toolbox and materials can't build a house by themselves. In order to make Busybox-based system useful, developers of this system add their own parts. At the very least, there are some shell scripts and configuration files, which control which tools are to be run, when, and how.
Often, there are also some web pages and CGI scripts in order to implement web-based configuration. Also, often developers add other tools beside Linux kernel and Busybox. Since these scripts, configuration files and other tools are custom-designed for a specific device, Busybox mailing list is usually a wrong place to ask about inner workings of such a device.
If you have access to shell prompt, try running "busybox ftpd --help". If it does, you probably will be able to enable it. Unfortunately, we don't know how Foomatic firmware manages starting and stopping of various services in case they already have ftpd sevice and it is just disabledor how to create and enable a new service on Foomatic if they dont. Try googling for it. However, Foomatic might have scp installed say, if they have dropbear installedand it may be possible to enable it.
If not, it may be possible to build and install your own scp tool. In order to modify some files, you need to find out how to switch the filesystem into read-write mode.
Note that sometimes embedded devices use read-only filesystem formats such as cramfs, and therefore in order to replace or add even a single file such as a new, or an additional Busybox binaryyou need to re-create and write out the entire filesystem image. This operation is not simple for inexperienced users and may permanently disable your device if done incorrectly. You are better off googling for a forum where users of this particular device discuss their findings about inner workings of the device, and joining it.
First, download a prebuilt binary version from http: The "busybox-i" version should run on both bit and bit x86 PCs, and the armv4tl version is the most generic arm version for smartphonesso those are probably good starting points. This is a statically linked version of the Busybox "multiplexer", a single command that can perform multiple actions, the way a swiss army knife has multiple blades. To try it out, give Busybox the command line you'd like it to execute:.
Thread hacking the game with binary options math get a list of the commands supported by this instance of Busybox, run it without any arguments, or use the "--list" or:. If the Busybox executable is renamed to one of the commands it supports, it will act as that command automatically:.
The --list option to busybox gives the list of supported commands in an easily scriptable form. The prebuilt binaries are based on the default configuration of Busybox, which enables all functionality except special purpose things like selinux or debugging support which would reduce the portability of the resulting binary. To build a defconfig Busybox from source, download the source code from http: Busybox uses the same "menuconfig" infrastructure as the Linux kernel.
You can start with "make defconfig" to enable almost everything, or "make allnoconfig" to disable everything, and then alter the selection with "make menuconfig" which uses tab, cursor up and down, space, and escape keys to navigate, and the forward slash key to search for symbol name. Obtain and install a cross compiler for your target. A few prebuilt ones are available from http: See also the buildroot and crosstool-ng projects.
Cross compilers use prefixed tool names to avoid blocking the host's existing compiler, thus the tools your cross compiler provides are probably named things like "armv4tl-cc", "armv4tl-ld", and "armv4tl-strip".
In this case, "armv4tl-" thread hacking the game with binary options math be the prefix. Note the trailing dash, if that's part of the prefix. This is a make variable override preventing Busybox from using its default value, which is why it has to come on the make command line instead of as an environment variable. And of course you can do a parallel SMP build with make's -j options. So to build a static cross compiled version of Busybox using a parallel build:.
Busybox is configured similarly to the linux kernel. Create a default configuration and then run "make menuconfig" to modify it. The end result is a. So instead of ". Busybox configured with all features enabled is a little under a megabyte dynamically linked on x To create a smaller Busybox, configure it with fewer features. Individual Busybox applets cost anywhere from a few hundred bytes to tens of kilobytes. Disable unneeded applets to save space, using "make menuconfig".
This enables almost all features, minus things like debugging options and features that require changes to the rest of the system to work such as selinux or devfs device names. Use this if you want to start from a full-featured Busybox and remove features until it's small enough. This creates a tiny version thread hacking the game with binary options math Busybox that doesn't do anything. Start here if you know exactly what you want and would like to select only those features.
Use this after one of the previous two. This creates a statically linked version of Busybox full of debug code, with thread hacking the game with binary options math on selinux, using devfs names This makes sure everything compiles. Whether or not the result would do anything useful is an open question. To build a smaller Busybox binary, run "make menuconfig" and disable the features you don't need.
Or run "make allnoconfig" and then use menuconfig to add just the features you need. Don't forget to recompile with "make" once you've finished configuring. To store the cross-compiler in your.
DSSS is a technique used to transmit reliable data where low signal strength and high noise are likely. Yet we know that data thread hacking the game with binary options math being received and decoded by every cell phone on the planet.
It is also used for WiFi management packets, ZigBee, thread hacking the game with binary options math found in proprietary systems especially any dealing with satellite communications. You can see below the signal with and without noise; the latter is completely indiscernible as a signal at all to the eye, but can be detected using his techniques.
DSSS transmits binary values as a set called a chip. The chip for digital 1 might be with the digital 0 being the inverse of that. You can see this in the slide at the top of this article.
Normal DSSS decoding compares the signal to expected values, using a correlation algorithm that multiplies the two and gives a score. If the score is high enough, 11 in this example, then a bit has been detected. To reverse engineer this it is necessary to center on the correct frequency and then detect the chip encoding.
The first math trick is to multiply the signal by itself and then look at spectrum analysis to see if there is a noticeable spike indicating the center of the frequency. This can then thread hacking the game with binary options math adjusted with an offset and smaller spikes on either side will be observed.
When visualized in a constellation view you begin to observe a center and two opposite clusters. The next math trick is to square the signal multiply it by itself and it will join those opposite clusters onto one side. What this accomplishes is a strong periodic component the cycle from the center to the cluster and back again which reveals the chip rate.
Subtract each successive value in the signal from the last and you will mostly end up with zero high signal minus high signal is zero, etc. This technique can deal with small amounts of noise but becomes more robust with a bit of filtering. This sort of exploration of the signal is both fun and interesting. But if you want to actually get some work done you need a tool. Running his sample file through with increasing levels of noise added, the script was rock solid on detecting the parameters of the signal.
Interestingly, it is even measuring the 3 parts per million difference between the transmitter and receiver clocks in the detected chip rate value. But just establishing the parameters of the protocol being used is the biggest thread hacking the game with binary options math of the battle and this is a dependable solution for doing that quickly and automatically.
You can give the script a try. This talk was recorded and you should add it to your reminder list for after the con when talks begin to be published. To hold you over until then, we suggest you take a look at his RF Design workshop from the Hackaday Thread hacking the game with binary options math. French hacker [akila] is building up a home automation system. First, he started off by reverse-engineering their very nicely made temperature and humidity sensor. Original in French, hit the translate button in the lower right.
Thread hacking the game with binary options math that under his belt, he opened up the PIR motion sensor unit to discover that it has the same debugging pinouts and the same processor. For a challenge, [akila] decided it was time to implement something useful in one of these gadgets: Well, that was easy. We just wrote up a ZigBee hack that aims to work with the Hue systemthough, so maybe times are changing? For some folks, tea is a simple pleasure — boil water, steep tea, enjoy.
And then there are those who take things even further by making a PID-controlled electric tea kettle an IoT device with Amazon Echo integration. Projects that hack the means of caffeine are no strangers to Hackaday, whether your preferred vector is teacoffeeor even straight up.
The Philips Hue range is a great way to add wirelessly controllable lighting to your home, but the protocol is proprietary which makes it difficult to add our own custom hardware.
Even though the MeshBee used the same device as a Hue lamp, it would not connect to the Hue bridge. But another clone lamp called Innr that he purchased from the local hardware store did connect quite easily.
With all of the software taken care of, and having cheap ZigBee Light Link compatible modules on hand, building low cost Hue compatible lights becomes pretty straight forward. Over time, the Internet of Things meant all these devices would connect over WiFi.
Why, no one has any idea. There have been a number of solutions to this problem of a WiFi of Things over the years, but none have caught on. Now, finally, there may be a solution.
The physical layer for OpenThread is Unlike ZigBee, the fourth, fifth, and sixth layers of OpenThread look much more like the rest of the Internet. OpenThread is OS and platform agnostic, and interfacing different radios should be relatively easy with an abstraction layer.
Radios and networking were always thread hacking the game with binary options math problem with the Internet of Things, and with OpenThread — and especially the companies supporting it — these problems might not be much longer. It seems these days all the electronics projects are wireless in some form.
There are a lot of variables to consider, so here is a guide to help you navigate the choices and come to a conclusion about which to use in your project. Putting an full microcontroller platform in a DIP format is nothing new — the Teensy does it, the Arduino nano does it, and a dozen other boards do it. The microcontroller is a variant that includes a 2.
What are [Alex] and [Alexey] going to do with their cool little board? Same DSSS signal not apparent. Thanks [wind-rider] for the tip.
We can really quickly reduce options down to the appropriate tech with just a few questions.
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